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Defamation complaint format – explained ( video )


Defamation is when someone makes a false remark about you, either verbally or in writing, that causes you harm. Defamation can occur whether a statement is made online or at a social gathering (“libel” refers to defamation that is written or uploaded, while “slander” refers to defamation that is uttered). This article is about Defamation complaint format .

The Case Begins with the Complaint. A Complaint will be filed in your state’s civil court system once you’ve met with your attorney and he or she has done some preliminary research that indicates you have a valid case. This is the legal document that starts the case. A major concern at this stage is your state’s defamation statute of limitations, which places a time limit on your ability to sue for defamation.

Defamation complaint format
Defamation complaint format

Keep in mind that filing a lawsuit does not guarantee that it will be resolved in a matter of weeks or months. A defamation case might take more than a year to reach the trial stage, and settlement negotiations can take place in the meanwhile as the case progresses. 

The court then issues a scheduling order, which details all of the case’s crucial deadlines. The “discovery” phase begins at that point. Written interrogatories will be sent by each party to the other (through counsel). These are sworn questions that help the opposing party learn more about you, your potential witnesses, and the facts of your case.

You will very certainly be asked to present certain documents by the other side. Your lawyer will assist you in gathering papers and answering inquiries. You may be able to withhold papers or refuse to answer inquiries for a variety of reasons, which your attorney can advise you on.

A deposition is a sworn interview in which the opposing party’s attorney asks you questions. This is your chance to get a sense of who you are and what type of witness you’ll be at trial, as well as how a jury could perceive you and how strong your claims are. Your attorney will assist you in preparing. Other witnesses, such as doctors, acquaintances, or relatives with knowledge of your case, may be questioned as well.

Defamation complaint format
Defamation complaint format

A defamation case is a civil action in which a victim sues a defendant for defamation, which is defined as a false statement made to a third party that damages the reputation of another person or corporation.

A plaintiff must: 

  • Determine that they have a legitimate defamation claim; 
  • Determine the proper court in which to initiate a slander claim;
  • They should gather and save their proof.
  • All pre-suit filing criteria must be met;
  • Consider pre-suit or alternative dispute resolution strategies; and
  • The legal complaint should be written, filed, and served on the defaming party.

What Are the Types of Defamation?

Defamation Per Se:

Defamation per se is another classification of defamation (also known as libel per se or slander per se, depending on whether the statement was written or spoken). This word refers to defamatory statements that are so harmful that the victim is presumed to have been harmed as a result of the statement.

Most jurisdictions in the United States consider statements to be defamatory per se if they: 

  • Accuse the plaintiff of committing a criminal or a crime of moral turpitude.
  • Assert that the plaintiff suffers from a debilitating illness. 
  • Make a claim that the plaintiff has engaged in sexual misconduct or that the plaintiff has performed unethically or unlawfully in his or her job.

Even while in defamation per se instances, injury is “presumed,” that does not absolve the plaintiff of the burden of establishing that suffering happened. The plaintiff must still show that he or she was harmed in order to collect compensation.

Defamation Per Quod:

Some remarks are not intrinsically defamatory, but become so because of extrinsic facts that are known or exist beyond the context and writing at issue. Per quod, these statements are considered defamation.

In these cases, the victim must present extrinsic evidence to demonstrate that the statement is defamatory. To put it another way, before a comment may be regarded as defamatory and hurtful, it must be placed in context with other information.

Defamation complaint format
Defamation complaint format

If someone was accused of sitting at a bar and drinking a drink, such a comment could be considered defamatory. This accusation does not appear to be defamatory on its face, even if it is incorrect. However, if that person is an alcoholic who has created a reputation for obtaining alcohol over the last 10 years, the false allegation that they were drinking could be considered defamation.

In most states, a plaintiff must show two things in a defamation per quod case:

  • The extent or severity of the unique damages they incurred because of a false and damaging statement (such as monetary loss, emotional suffering, or reputational damage).
  • It is also the plaintiff’s burden to show that the plaintiff’s damages were caused directly by the defendant’s remarks or actions.

Criminal Defamation:

Defamation is a civil tort that allows the plaintiff to seek a civil remedy, which is usually monetary damages or equitable relief. Some state statutes make it illegal to print certain sorts of defamatory claims, but these prohibitions are rarely enforced in practise.

Idaho, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, Wisconsin, Montana, New Hampshire, and North Dakota are the only states in the United States that have criminal defamation laws on the books.

Many state criminal defamation and libel laws have been challenged or overturned over the years due to a lack of definition and interference with free expression. Because the United States has a long history of valuing the First Amendment and safeguarding citizens’ rights to free speech, proving defamation can be challenging.

Defamation is a defense-friendly allegation, with hundreds of defamation defences available to defendants seeking to escape legal repercussions. However, there are three major scenarios in which defamers may face jail time:

  1. When they have broken a restraining order; 
  2. When they have broken a court order related to libellous behaviour and have been placed in contempt of court; 
  3. When they have broken a restraining order

Workplace Defamation:

Workplace defamation is defined as defamatory statements made against a person by their employer or coworkers. This form of defamation can have serious ramifications for the victim’s professional career and reputation. Rumors, performance reviews, and references are all examples of situations that can lead to a workplace defamation claim.

When issuing performance reviews or recommendations, most states have unique rules in place to protect employers from defamation claims. An employee may have a workplace defamation claim if their employer exaggerates, lies, or behaves in bad faith.

Sally, for example, is fired from her job due to a poor performance assessment from her employer, who stated that she was always late to work. Sally, on the other hand, was just five minutes late once during the entire year. Sally’s manager exaggerated her tardiness on purpose in order to have her fired. Sally might have a case for slander in the workplace.

Elements to Establish in a Defamation Case

Defamation complaint format
Defamation complaint format

1. Affirmation of a fact that isn’t true

The first criterion for bringing a defamation suit is that the remark made against you or your company was false. The term “false statement” refers to a statement that is objectively untrue. Truth is an absolute defence to defamation, which means that a true remark cannot be defamatory by definition.

2. In the Matter of the Plaintiff

Following that, there must be a link between the plaintiff and the libellous comment. Even if the plaintiff is not specifically identified by name (which can be an individual or a company), the statement can still be regarded “of and concerns the plaintiff” if a reasonable person would interpret it to be about the plaintiff. The condition that defamation be “of and concerning” usually indicates that a group of persons cannot sue for slander. However, if the remark is made in such a way that one or more members of the group can be recognised, the group may have a claim for defamation as a whole.

3. A Third Party Has Been Informed: The “Publication Requirement” 

The statement must have been “published,” “communicated to,” or “read” by a third party to be considered defamatory. The publication requirement is satisfied as long as the defamatory comment is communicated to someone other than the defamer or the defamed, whether through private or public communication. Keep in mind that defamation does not apply to a false statement merely heard or read by the plaintiff and defendant.

4. Fault Amounting to Negligence at the Very Least

In order to win a defamation of character claim, the plaintiff must establish that the defendant made the defamatory words with some level of purpose. More specifically, defamation can only exist if the defendant was: 

  • Negligent about the statement’s truth or untruth, or 
  • With regard to the truth or untruth of the assertion, acted with actual malice

5. The Statement Wasn’t Confidential

Most governments will recognise some form of legal privilege when it comes to remarks that could be considered defamatory otherwise. These advantages could include:

  • Exceptional privilege,
  • Privilege with qualifications,
  • The right to a fair report
  • Privilege of neutral reporting
  • Privilege granted by law

6. Inflicting irreparable harm to the plaintiff’s reputation

In a defamation case, the plaintiff must establish that the damage to his or her reputation resulted in monetary compensation. Damages is a broad phrase that refers to any type of monetary award made to a plaintiff in a legal action. Remember that in defamation per se instances, defamation damages are presumed. They must, however, be properly defined and quantified in the plaintiff’s legal complaint in defamation per quod proceedings.

What is the Process for Filing a Defamation Lawsuit?

Defamation complaint format
Defamation complaint format

Because defamation law is state-specific, the exact procedure for launching a lawsuit is determined by the plaintiff’s choice of venue. However, it is excellent practise for potential plaintiffs to follow the following general rules and stages in most states:

  1. Determine whether your defamation claim is valid
  2. Decide where you’ll file your lawsuit
  3. Collect and store evidence
  4. Comply with all defamation standards prior to filing a lawsuit
  5. Consider your choices for alternative conflict settlement
  6. Make a legal complaint and file it
  7. The complaint should be served

How to register a Defamation Complaint against a phone number in India?

A Defamation Complaint in India is accepted by the Cyber Cell. This has been divided under 2 categories:

1. Offline Mode

  • The victim/complainant must file a written complaint with the cybercrime cell’s leader in order to report the cybercrime. 
  • Because cybercrime falls under worldwide jurisdiction, the complainant can submit a complaint with any cybercrime cell in India. 
  • For those who do not have access to the internet, the offline approach is more convenient.

2. Online Mode

  • The “Report and Track” option on the online portal where a victim can register a cyber crime complaint allows the complainant to track the status of his or her complaint. 
  • The complainant must fill out information about the incident, the suspect of the crime, and the complainant’s personal information (unless in the case of the “Report Anonymously” option). 
  • The complainant also receives a copy of the complaint that he or she has made on the portal. After a complaint is successfully registered, a PDF of the complaint is generated and can be downloaded from the portal.
  • This mode is extremely useful for NRIs.

To report a cyber crime online, follow the steps outlined below:

STEP 1: Go to and fill out the form.

STEP 2: Go to the menu and select “Report other cyber offences.”

STEP 3: Select ‘File a Complaint’ from the drop-down menu.

STEP 4: Read and accept the terms and conditions.

STEP 5: Fill in your name and state when registering your phone number.STEP 6: Fill in the pertinent information about the crime.

Defamation complaint format
Defamation complaint format

Why should NRIs seek the help of a defamation POA to settle their cases?

A defamation lawyer assists clients with their legal difficulties including defamation. This assistance might range from suing someone else for making defamatory words to defending clients who have been accused of defamation. Some defamation attorneys specialise in either prosecuting or defending cases.

Defamation complaint format
Defamation complaint format

In the profession of defamation law, a defamation attorney performs a variety of legal activities on a daily basis, including:

  1. Motions to file
  2. Visiting a courtroom (for a trial or a pre-trial hearing)
  3. Dealing with the opposing counsel
  4. Developing legal plans
  5. Carrying out legal study
  6. Advising clients on the best legal course of action
  7. Contracts, pleadings, and motions are among the legal documents that must be prepared
  8. Identifying the most important legal concerns
  9. One of the most critical things a defamation lawyer will complete is this last one. Hearing a set of facts and determining the legal claims (or defences) that a client may have is generally tough for the client to do on their own.

How to Write a Defamation Legal Notice?

Defamation complaint format
Defamation complaint format

You can create a legal notice for defamation with the help of skilled lawyers who are sensible and up to date on the subject matter and have expertise managing defamation cases.

The following are required elements of a defamation legal notice:

  1. The recipient’s name, description, and address are included in the notice
  2. The sender’s name, description, and address are all included in the notice
  3. Details about the reason for the action
  4. The redress sought by the notice’s sender
  5. The detailed account of the incident that prompted the legal action
  6. The exact time frame in which the assistance must be supplied
  7. The accused individual can either respond to the legal notice for defamation or attempt to prove his innocence. If he does not respond to the legal notice, you can proceed to file a lawsuit against him

Also read – Repatriate money from India in 2021


  1. Will You Require the Services of a Lawyer?

You are not necessary to engage a lawyer to pursue a defamation action, but you will have a far more difficult time convincing the opposing party to take you seriously if you do not. This is especially true if the damages you’re alleging are substantial and go outside of the scope of small claims court. Defamation cases are won or lost based on the strength of the evidence, and an attorney may assist you in gathering all of the necessary proof.

2. What is the fundamental structure of a defamation case?

  1. Introduction
  2. Facts
  3. Liability
  4. Damages and Settlement Considerations
  5. Monetary Demand
  6. Conclusion

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